A chemical produced in the brain (a neurotransmitter) that is involved in learning and memory.It transfers information signals from one nerve cell to the next.Acetylcholine is greatly diminished in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease.
The most common dementia, AD is a progressive, degenerative disease that attacks the brain and results in impaired memory, thinking, and behavior.AD is defined by a presence of a memory disorder by a presence of a memory disorder plus one or more of the following:agnosia (perceptual disorder), aphasia (language disorder), apraxia (disorder of voluntary movements), and impairment of judgement, decision making and social appropriateness.
Chemicals used to combine with and disarm free radicals, the free or loose neurons that can combine with and impair the function of important molecules, creating the characteristic changes of aging seen in skin, tendon, bone cartilage and connective tissue.
A focal cognitive deficit where there is difficulty understanding the speech of others (receptive aphasia) and/or expressing oneself verbally (expressive aphasia).Impairment of language may be manifested by difficulty in word finding (dysnomia) and object naming (anomia) with resultant word substitutions (paraphasias).
Hardening and narrowing of the body’s arteries caused by formation of plaque and chronic inflammation.Plaques are partially made up of certain types of fats includinf cholestrol and triglycerides.Atherosclerosis can lead to stroke, heart attack, eye problems, and kidney problems.
effects the lungs and makes it difficult for the person to take a full breath.When a person is chewing and swallowing, they are not taking breaths. when a person has a choice between breathing and eating, the person will choose to breath.
A technique in which multiple X-rays of the body are taken from different angles in a very short period of time.These images are collected by a computer to give a series of images that look like “slices” of the body.In diagnosing dementia,CT scans can reveal tumors and small strokes in the brain.
CDJ is a rare fatal brain disorder caused by a transmissible infectious organism, called a prion.Symptoms include failing memory, change in behavior, and a lack of coordination.Like Alzheimer’s disease, a definitive diagnosis can be obtained only through an examination of brain tissue usually at autospy.
A state of mental confusion characterized by disorientation, and which may include delusions and hallucinations, and incoherent speech.The condition may be caused by fever, shock, exhaustion, anxiety or drug overdose and is reversible if the cause can be determined and treated.
An overall term referring to the various diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, that cause a loss of mental functions.It is an acquired,persistent impairment in multiple areas of intellectual function not due to delirium.There is a compromise in three or more of the following nine spheres of mental activity: memeory, language, perception, praxis (skills), calculations, conceptual or language knowledge, executive or decision making functions, personality or social behavior, and emotional awaren
The most common psychiatric disorder among older people, it can vary in duration and degree and show psychological as well as physiological manifestations.Characteristics include sadness, inactivity, insomnia, difficulty in thinking and concentration, feeling of hopelessness, and sometimes suicidal tendencies.
This refers to the inability or reduced capacity to control or inhibit an impulsive response.Persons with dementia may be less able to monitor or self-regulate behaviors due to neurological deterioration that comes with the illness.Disinhibition may take the form of verbally or physically aggressive behaviors, sexual aggressiveness, or socially unacceptable acts.
Deals with strategic planning and follow-through.They include the ability to formulate long-term goals, the steps and program to meet those goals, the motivation to act on those steps, and the ability to monitor and reassess progress in attaining those goals.
A form of dementia (Pick’s disease is an example) characterized by early damage to the frontal brain that monitors judgement and control impulses.FTD is noted for extreme behavior difficulties as well as speech impairment.Memory may not be affected until later in the illness.Other characteristics include poor judgement, social and interpersonal conduct problems, and apathy
Stage 1: No cognitive impairment and memory problems are undetected by examinations Stage 2: Very mild cognitive decline (e.g., losing keys, forgetting names) Stage 3: Mild cognitive decline (early AD) (e.g., friends and family notice change in memory) Stage 4: Moderate cognitive decline (early AD), (e.g., unable to manage finance, impaired memory of the past) Stage 5: Moderate severe cognitive decline (e.g., unable to recall date, unable to select clothing assistance with toileting) Stage
A burning discomfort behind the lower part of the sternum usually related to irritation of teh lower end of the esophagus or upper part of the stomach often in association with regurgitation or reflux from the stomach into the esophagus.
This is one of the most common brain complications of late HIV-1 infection.Dpending on the severity, it causes three catgegories of dysfunction: cognitive, motor, and behavioral.Psychosis may also be a symptom.
An inherited, degenerative brain diseases which affcets the mind and body.The disease usually begins during mid-life and is characterized by intellectual decline, and irregular and involuntary movements of the limbs or facial muscles.Personality changes and memory disturbances are also characteristic of the disease.
Includes both the personal self-care activities as well as more complex activities, such as going shopping or doing housework.Because the IADL tasks are more complicated and multifaceted, functional losses are expected to show up first in these items.
A form of dementia identified by inclusions in part of the brain responsible for memory and motor control.These inclusions are also seen in parkinson’s disease.Tremor, rigidity and lack of spontaneous movement are seen in both conditions.
A procedure to sample cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), which is the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord.The sample is usually taken from the spine along the lower back after the patient recieves medication to relieve pain during te procedure.
Memory: Memory has multiple dimensions.These includes primary memory (short-term memory), working memory (manipulations of memory), secondary memory (new learning or recent memory), and tertiary memory (retrieval of remote information).
A popular 30-items instrument (developed by Drs. Folstein, Folstein and McHugh) that evaluates orientation, registration of information, attention and calculations, recall, language, and visual constructions.A total score of 23 or less suggests the presence of dementia or other mental status impairment.
Occurs when there is an overproduction of reactive oxygen molecules relative to the body’s ability to dtoxify the reactive molecules or repair the damage caused by them.Oxidation stress can occur with the production of toxic free radicals in the course of normal metabolism.The body requires defenses against oxidative stress in order to remain healthy.Oxidative stress is involved in many diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and atherosclerosis.
The middle lobe of each cerebral hemisphere between the frontal and occipital lobes.Here sensations are received including the sense of where one is in space, where reading and writing is initiated, and where automatic motor actions are planned.
A progressive disorder of the central nervous system affecting motor control.Indivisuals with PD lack the neurotransmitter dopamine which is important for the central nervous system’s control of muscle activity.PD is characterized by tremors,stiffness in limbs and joints, speech impediments and difficulty in initiating physical movement.
A rare disorder that damages cells in the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain.Although it typically affects people in their 50s and 60s, it has been diagnosed in people from the ages of 20 to 80.Behavior and personality changes usually precede memory loss and language problems.
Developmental reversal; this concept means that a person loses skills such as walking, speaking, self feeding, and driving a car in roughly the reverse order they learned these skills as a child into adulthood.
The Alzheimer’s Association’s nationwide identification, support, and registration program that assist in the safe return of individuals with Alzheimer’s disease or related dementia who wander and become lost.
Proteins within the cell that help to stabilize and assemble microtubules, which are structures within the cell that act like tracks along with cellular components can travel from one part of the cell to another.Tau proteins are abundant in nerve cells with in the brain and are less common elsewhere.In Alzheimer’s disease, tau proteins become hyper-phosporylated, which makes them “sticky” to form neurofibrillary tangles.