14: Activity-Focused Dementia Care: Person-Centered Care and Environments

This program will help you:

  • Understand the importance of relating activity-focused care to a person-centered approach
  • Modify environments to create the best possible occupational space
  • There are no easy answers when it comes to the care of another
  • Our hope is to offer you useful information and guidelines for caring for someone with dementia
  • These guidelines will need to be adjusted to suit your own indivisual needs
  • ACTIVITY-FOCUSED DEMENTIA CARE
  • Incorporates meaningful activities into daily life
  • Includes any kind of activity that is meaningful to the person
  • PERSON-CENTERED CARE
  • Focuses on individual needs and wants
  • Considers personal preferences, habits and routines
  • Considers personal preferences, habits and routines
  • ABILITIES-fOCUSED CARE
  • Identify and encourage use of retained skills and capacities
  • Compensates for dementia-related problems and limitations
  • Allows for successes at the person’s level of ability

Why did Mary want Robert to get up early in the morning?

  • A. Robert likes getting up early in the morning.
  • B. If Robert gets up early, he’ll sleep better at night and be more engaged during the day.
  • C. Getting up early is generally helpful to people with dementia.
  • D. Mary likes to start the day early.

Choice A: Robert likes getting up early in the morning, is an unlikely answer.

Choice B: If Robert gets up early, he’ll sleep better at night and be more engaged during the day, is also unlikely.

Choice C: Getting up early is generally helpful to people with dementia, is incorrect.

Choice D: Mary likes to start the day early, is the most likely answer.

  • Person-centered care is individualized and considers each individual’s wants and needs
  • Activity-focused care is best when customized to each individual
  • Take into consideration personal preferences, characteristic habits and routines
  • Respect the person’s values and beliefs
  • Respect spiritual and religious practices
  • Learn about each individual’s cultural norms and practices
  • Caregivers should know about the person’s meaningful life experiences, past roles and accomplishments
  • To learn about someone’s meaningful life experiences,caregivers can ask questions
  • Use photographs, albums, and scrap books to help someone reconnect
  • Post a brief life biography and supporting pictures on the bedroom door
  • Person-centered care respects cultural norms and expectations
  • Independence and autonomy versus interdependence and community
  • May feel disrespected and embarrassed when given assistance from others
  • May help explain why the exact same approach may work well on one person but not another
  • Person-centered care also respects values and beliefs, including spiritual and religious preferences

What is the main reason why Robert failed to engage in putting the puzzle together?

  • A. Robert failed because he became more interested in the TV rather than putting the puzzle together.
  • B. Robert failed because of his cognitive problems caused by Alzheimer’s.
  • C. Robert failed because of hearing and vision problems.
  • D. Robert failed because his environment was not set up to increase his chances of success at the activity.

Choice A: Robert failed because he became more interested in the TV rather than putting the puzzle together, is unlikely.

Choice B: Robert failed because of his cognitive problems caused by Alzheimer’s, may be partially correct.

Choice C: Robert failed because of hearing and vision problems, may also be partially correct.

Choice D: Robert failed because his environment was not set up to increase his chances of success at the activity, is the best answer.

  • Vision
  • Glare
  • Peripheral vision loss
  • Poor central vision
  • Reduced contrast perception
  • Easily become visually distracted
  • Hearing loss
  • Remove barriers to participation
  • Reduce excessive background noise
  • Reduce glare
  • Direct glare: occurs when light sources are not properly shielded
  • Reflected glare: occurs when strong light bounces off hard, smooth surfaces
  • Reduce clutter
  • Set out only needed objects
  • Present objects one at a time
  • Put like objects with like objects
  • Provide orienting signs and cues
  • Ensure hearing aids are operable and being used
  • Ensure eye glasses are clean and positioned properly
  • Provide visual contrasts by using light letters on dark backgrounds
  • Combine ambient lighting with focused task lighting
  • Provide positive occupational spaces
  • Places where people are meaningfully occupied
  • Provide access to familiar tasks
  • Call upon retained skills and abilities
  • Consistent with former roles or interests
  • Repetitive, large-motion activities

Creating Individual Spaces

  • Spaces for individualized activity and work
    • Comfortable chairs around a small work table
    • Good task lighting
    • Favorite items within reach
  • Might initiate activities on their own
    • Jigsaw puzzles
    • Handling money
    • Knitting
    • Physical activity

Creating Social Environments

  • Occupational spaces encourage social interactions and gatherings
    • Allow for people to sit and interact
  • Create interest points
    • Outdoor bird feeders
    • Inside aviaries
    • Aquariums
    • Religious symbols or altars
    • Tapestries and other artwork
    • Indoor plants and flowers
  • Activity-focused dementia care
  • Activities that are meaningful to the person
  • Meets that person’s needs or wants
  • Person-centered and abilities focused care
  • Person-centered care
  • Focuses on individual needs and wants
  • Considers person’s history, preferences, habits and routines
  • Respect cultural norms and values
  • Incorporates personally meaningful activities
  • Occupational spaces
  • Adjust for vision and hearing loss and limitations due to Alzheimer’s
  • Provide access to familiar tasks that use retained skills and abilities
  • Consistent with former roles or interests
  • Repetitive tasks with clear outcomes
  • Comfortable chairs, a work table, good lighting
  • Easy access to favorite items and activities
  • Provide interesting objects for enjoyment and discussion

Written by:
Catherine M. Harris, PhD, RNCS.
Mindy J. Kim-Miller, MD, PhD

Edited by:
Sasha Asdourian

www.LightBridgeHealthcare.com

13: Activity-Focused Dementia Care: Meaningful Activities

Select the best answers from the list of choices following each question.

Click here to open Certificate of Completion
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